Akshat Rathi | Quartz | February 13, 2017 | 0 Comments

An Algae That Survived Two Years in Outer Space May Hold the Secret to Growing Food on Mars

The algae samples aboard the ISS. DLR

Humans won’t survive on Mars for very long if they don’t learn to grow their own food. That’s why we need to answer the question: What, if anything, can grow on the red planet?

A two-year experiment on the International Space Station (ISS) gives us some hints. A species of green algae and photosynthesizing bacteria have survived their 450-day stay in outer space. All but one of the algae samples started growing after being returned to Earth.

The experiment was part of the Biology and Mars Experiment (BIOMEX) to understand to what extent terrestrial life can survive in space. It involved a series of pockets where hundreds of specimens of bacteria, fungi, lichens, algae, and mosses were exposed to conditions of near vacuum, temperatures between -4 °F (-20 °C) and 116 °F (47 °C), and a continuous blast of ultraviolet radiation.

BIOMEX on the International Space Station. (DLR)

The BIOMEX lab was sent back to Earth in June 2016, and we are starting to get the results. Researchers are now analyzing the DNA of what survived to look for what kind of damage it may have suffered.

The surviving algae belonged to the Sphaerocystis species, found in Svalbard, a Norwegian archipelago, and the cyanobacteria to the Nostoc species, found in Antarctica. The species were selected because they are known to withstand extreme cold. The algae species protects itself by entering a dormant state, forming thick walls and orange cysts rich in cartenoids, which is the chemical that gives carrots its color and is known to be protective against radiation. These two species are now being added to the small but growing list of terrestrial organisms that can survive space, which include lichensbacteria, and water bears (tardigrades).

A practical lesson from these survivalists could help us farm on Mars. Algae produce proteins and oxygen, both key ingredients for surviving once humans leave the blue planet.

The survivors could also help us understand how life on Earth began. The leading hypothesis is that life emerged spontaneously from just the right mix of chemicals and environmental conditions, but there is also the possibility that it may have been delivered to Earth by meteorites or comets. Such life would have needed to survive harsh conditions of space en route, which is why the BIOMEX results support the hypothesis.


Thank you for subscribing to newsletters from Nextgov.com.
We think these reports might interest you:

  • It’s Time for the Federal Government to Embrace Wireless and Mobility

    The United States has turned a corner on the adoption of mobile phones, tablets and other smart devices, outpacing traditional desktop and laptop sales by a wide margin. This issue brief discusses the state of wireless and mobility in federal government and outlines why now is the time to embrace these technologies in government.

  • Featured Content from RSA Conference: Dissed by NIST

    Learn more about the latest draft of the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology guidance document on authentication and lifecycle management.

  • A New Security Architecture for Federal Networks

    Federal government networks are under constant attack, and the number of those attacks is increasing. This issue brief discusses today's threats and a new model for the future.

  • Going Agile:Revolutionizing Federal Digital Services Delivery

    Here’s one indication that times have changed: Harriet Tubman is going to be the next face of the twenty dollar bill. Another sign of change? The way in which the federal government arrived at that decision.

  • Software-Defined Networking

    So many demands are being placed on federal information technology networks, which must handle vast amounts of data, accommodate voice and video, and cope with a multitude of highly connected devices while keeping government information secure from cyber threats. This issue brief discusses the state of SDN in the federal government and the path forward.

  • The New IP: Moving Government Agencies Toward the Network of The Future

    Federal IT managers are looking to modernize legacy network infrastructures that are taxed by growing demands from mobile devices, video, vast amounts of data, and more. This issue brief discusses the federal government network landscape, as well as market, financial force drivers for network modernization.


When you download a report, your information may be shared with the underwriters of that document.